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By Nader Qudimat / Dec 15, 2017

The Ephedra Guide

Is ephedra even worth it with ephedrine removed?

Click here to jump down to the best ephedra based products...

Effectiveness

Ephedra has been proven to burn fat and increase thermogenesis especially when stacked but without ephedrine, it is a bit weaker.

Safety

It's safe when used appropriately but it can easily be abused and misused.

Price

Since it is widely available and comes from nature, it is quite affordable. 

Availability

Can be easily found and bought from numerous sources and retailers. 

We like

  • Backed by research and countless studies.
  • Increases thermogenesis by using fatty acids for energy. 
  • Stacks easily with many stimulants like DMAA and caffeine etc.
  • Ephedra contains many alkaloids even without ephedrine.
  • Ephedra very well when used with acacia rigidula and DMAA
  • In a 2 year span, over 3 billion doses were taken before ephedrine was banned (it's safe).

We Don't Like

  • Not as strong when ephedrine is taken out.
  • Can be abused and used incorrectly (which led to ephedrine being banned).

So you're wondering about ephedra and what it can do for you...

You've come to the right place. 

But you're not sure where to find Ephedra or if it's even legal in your country. 

Or you may not even know if it's safe for you to take...

Well that's where this guide comes into use. 

We don't only discuss everything there is about ephedra, but we take it further and categorize supplements by strength.

So whether you want the strong stuff or something for beginners, you'll find what you're looking for. 

​Stimulants that get us in the groove, hearts pumping and heads rushing with urges to jump off walls, is something we dearly enjoy.

But we can’t always enjoy such stimulants if they are being abused as that is one sure fire way to get the FDA to ban it.​

In this case, it’s ephedra and believe it or not, it’s widely available (and so is DMAA).

Lipodrene, along with other popular supplements, still contain ephedra.

How’s this possible, you ask?

As long as there are no ephedrine alkaloids present in the formula, then it is completely legal.

So ephedrine was banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) back in the early 2000’s, giving rise to a huge black market demand for what was touted as the ultimate way to get super ripped.

Recently it appears to have made a legal comeback, yet confusion still surrounds its availability and legality.

We’ll find out exactly what ephedra is, what it really does, we’ll uncover precisely what its legal standing is and whether any substitute is really going to give you the results you’re looking for.​

What is Ephedra?

For thousands of years the herb Ma Huang has been used by physicians in the Far East to treat a variety of illnesses and health conditions, including circulatory problems, hayfever, bronchitis and hypotension.

Chinese herbalists have been using it to promote fat loss, enhance vitality and endurance.

Western medicine refers to Ma Huang as the Epehdra Sinica plant, or simply as Ephedra. (1)

Ma Huang is prepared from a desert dwelling shrub in the Ephedra genus.

There are more than 50 species of Ephedra around the world.

The three Asian versions of Ephedra that are used medicinally in Asia are:

  • Epherda sinica
  • Ephedra intermedia
  • Ephedrine aquisetinia

The active component in Ephedra is Ephedrine.

Ephederine was isolated by researchers in Japan in 1887.

50 years later it was chemically synthesized.

In the early 1930’s Ephedrine was approved for use by the American Medial Association as a sympathomimetic drug with relatively low toxicity.

Ephedra or Ephedrine?

It is important to note that Ephedra has not been banned.

You will recall that ephedra refers to the Ma Huang herb.

What has been banned in the United States are the active alkaloid compounds found within the Ephedra plant, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, methylephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine.

The following excerpt from the actual 2004 FDA ruling makes this clear . . .​

We use the term dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids in this final rule to refer to dietary supplements containing botanical sources of ephedrine alkaloids. We use the term ‘ephedra’ to refer to botanical sources of ephedrine alkaloids..

(FDA Final Ruling on Ephedrine alkaloids. (2)​ )

FDA Final Ruling on Ephedrine alkaloids.

It is, therefore, possible to legally obtain a supplement that contains Ephedra, but it will have necessarily removed the illegal alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine.

So, what do you leave remaining in the Ephedra herb when you take out those alkaloids?

Ephedra is a complex herb made up of many compounds.

Even though the alkaloids that have been banned have been shown to be the most important contributors to the fat loss results that have been achieved in the past, they were not the only contributors.

In fact, they only make up about 2% of what is inside of this plant!​

Here are the most important compounds contained in alkaloid free Ephedra . . .​

Epicatechin

This is an antioxidant that naturally inhibits myostatin.

Myostatin is a hormone that your body releases to stop muscle growth.

Epicatechin is found in dark chocolate and is the reason that it is popularly recommended for health.

Epicatechin is known as a flavanol and it has a ton of benefits.

Flavanols have the ability to enhance our natural body functions.

Of all the flavanols, Epicatechin appears to stand supreme.

Studies have shown that it has the ability to . . .

  • Boost blood flow
  • Enhance nitric oxide levels
  • Improve insulin sensitivity
  • Suppress the appetite
  • Bring down LDL cholesterol levels
  • Stabilize blood pressure
  • Inhibit myostatin

Getting epicatechin through supplemental, as opposed to whole food sources, is smart idea for those trying to lose weight.

A typical daily dose of 45 grams of dark chocolate will provide you with an extra two hundred calories to your daily caloric consumption. (3)

Polyephenols

Polyphenols are a compound with antioxidant properties.

They protect against some cancers, cell degradation, chronic diseases and inflammation.

There are over 8000 polyphenols and more than 4000 are flavonoids. (4)

Catechins

A catechin is a type of natural phenol antioxidant.

Catechins can prevent the growth of cancer cells and prohibit such mental disorders as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

They are commonly found in green and black teas, cocoa (dark chocolate) and berries.

They are abundant in the ephedra plant.

Catechins are abundant in green tea, and are what have led to their popularity as a health booster.

Catechins have been shown to have fat oxidizing properties.

To have a beneficial weight loss effect, however, catechins need to be taken in sizable quantities.

The typical dosage of Ephedrine is 25 grams, which is too low to produce appreciable weight loss effects from catechins.

Flavanoid Glycosides

Flavanoid Glycosides are a group of compounds that occur naturally in fruits and vegetables.

They are usually bound to sugars.

They have been shown to be beneficial in improving the strength of capillaries, stabilizing blood sugar and boosting the overall efficiency of the immune system.

Citric and Malic Acid

Citric and malic acid work together to provide an energy boost and off-setting the effects of fatigue.

Malic acid is also a well recognized pain reliever.

Citric and malic acid are involved on the krebs cycle.

As such they are involved in the metabolism of everything that we consume.

Citric acid is also a popular skin rejuvenating product.

A compromising of the krebs cycle will result in less efficient metabolization and energy production within the body.

The supply of citric and malic acid via ephedra will help to ensure that the system runs efficiently.

Visually, this is how the citric acid cycle works. Image source: Wikipedia

Visually, this is how the citric acid cycle works. Image source: Wikipedia

Glycans

Glycans are macro molecules that assist the cells in the body to communicate with one another.

They are especially beneficial to the skin, as they facilitate the communication process which leads to collagen replenishment.

In terms of weight loss, the glycans found in Ephedra (known as ephedrans) have been shown in studies with mice to contribute to the normalization of blood sugar.

However, no studies have yet been done on human subjects.

Tannins

Tannins are most commonly used in the production of wine, being the compounds that bind to amino acids and produce that dry taste in white wine.

When it comes to ephedra there are two tannins of particular importance . . .

  • Galic acid
  • Epigallic acid

In a study conducted in 2015, galic acid was given to mice who were fed on an increased food consumption.

Despite the extra calories, the mice did not gain weight, in contrast to a control group.

The galic acid fed mice also significantly improved their glucose and insulin homeostasis.

These are crucial factors for weight control.(5)

The Structure of Ephedrine

Ephedrine is a benzyl alkaloid, which basically means that it is a nitrogen containing molecule.

It contains component parts that work in the same way as synthetic stimulants, such as epinephrine and methamphetamine.

The variety that produces best results in this regard is Ephedra Sinica.

Ephedra Sinica contains 1-3% alkaloids, of which between 40-90% is ephedrine.

The key alkaloids in Ephedra are . . .

  • Ephedrine
  • Norephedrine
  • ​N-methyphedrine
  • Psuedoephedrine
  • Norpsuedoephedrine
  • N-methyl Psuedoephedrine

The properties of alkaloids are largely determined by the precise positioning of their nitrogen atom and the length and constituency of their alkyl side chains.

How Does It Work

The properties of alkaloids are largely determined by the precise positioning of their nitrogen atom and the length and constituency of their alkyl side chains.

Ephedrine stimulates alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, which leads to an increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a resulting increase in blood circulation.

It also has a major stimulatory effect on the central nervous system. In addition, ephedra will relax and dilate your respiratory pathways.

It can also control the activity of the hypothalamus and speed up thermogenesis.

It will also improve concentration for working, studying of taking exams.

All of these effects make Ephedra a natural fat loss stimulant.

It has been shown, over and over again, to really work in terms of boosting fat loss.

A number of controlled studies have looked into the effect of ephedra and ephedrine in terms of fat loss.

Often it has been combined with caffeine and / or aspirin in order to have a more potent effect.

A recent study found that people who took and ephedra-caffeine supplement lost a average of one kilogram (2.2 pounds) per month over 6 months more weight than a group who were taking a placebo.

The dosage taken was 90mg of ephedra and 192mg of caffeine daily.

There were no adverse effects at this dosage.

An older study compared four groups of obese people.

One group took just caffeine at a daily dose of 200mg three times per day.

The second group took 20mg of Ephedra three times per day.

A third group took caffeine and ephedra together at a dosage of 200 and 20mg, three times per day.

The fourth group took a placebo.

The group that took both caffeine and ephedrine lost the most weight over a period of six months.

However, all four groups lost a similar amount of weight due to being on a calorie controlled diet.

In fact, the placebo group lost more weight than the ephedra group alone. (6)

It is important to note that the caffeine-ephedra group reported such side effects as vertigo, and increased heart rate.

The combination of ephedra and caffeine works by increasing the metabolic rate and also by suppressing the appetite.

The combination of ephedra and caffeine also appears to increase muscle mass, so that weight loss is predominantly fat as opposed to muscle tissue. (7)

A supplement which used to be popular – it has since been removed from the market – was Xenedrine.

It was a combination of Ephedrine and Caffeine.

A study was done on this supplement.

Participants in the study were given a total of 40mg of Ephedrine and 200mg of caffeine.

The supplement group lost more fat and retained more muscle than the placebo group, with both groups following the same diet and exercise program.​

What is the Legal Standing of Ephedra?

In 1994, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) passed the Dietary Supplement and Health Act.

It stipulated that dietary supplements are exempt from the same rigorous regulations of prescription or non-prescription drugs.

In order to impose restrictions on a supplement, the FDA must show ‘significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury’ under the conditions of use outlined on the product label.

In other words, the risks need to outweigh the benefits for the FDA to take action against a supplement.

In 1997, the FDA put forward a proposal to regulate the use of Ephedra.

The proposal was to limit the dosage to 8 mg with a maximum daily dosage of 24mg.

The proposal was withdrawn in 2000, due to a lack of clarity concerning the FDA’s right to impose dosage limits.

In 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration deemed that the perceived risks associated with ephedra as a dietary supplements outweighed the potential benefits.

They, therefore, banned ephedrine, norephedrine, methylephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine containing supplements.

However, many over the counter medications that contained ephedrine and psuedoephedrine escaped the ban.

The ban was overruled in 2005, but was subsequently upheld.

The current stand of the FDA is that the consumer should not take Ephedra or Ephedrine in any dose whatsoever as a supplement.

It has also been banned by many athletic governing bodies.

The FDA ruling was based upon the 2003 RAND report.

This was a thorough review of 52 clinical trials of ephedrine for weight loss or athletic performance.

The RAND report concluded that ephedrine based supplements had a small but significant short term benefit in terms of promoting weight loss.

However, it also determined that, based on over 16000 case studies which were examined, there were 22 ‘sentinel’ events associated with use of the supplement.

These included two deaths, 3 myocardial infractions, 9 cerebrovascular accidents, 3 seizures, and 5 psychiatric cases.

In 2005, the U.S. District Court for the State of Utah ruled that the 2004 ban on ephedra was based on insufficient evidence that the herb was unsafe if taken at low dosages.

However, a year later, the ban was upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit.

However, it is strictly monitored, with each state having its own regulations.

There are, though, some Federal requirements which apply to all states.

These include the following . . .

  • Daily sales are not to exceed 3.6 g, regardless of the number of transactions
  • Monthly sales are not to exceed 9 g of pseudoephedrine, regardless of the number of transactions (7.5 g if by mail order)

Ma Huang can be sold legally as a pure herb or as a tea in the United States.

Is it Legal in Other Countries?

In Canada there are no specific regulations regarding the sale, possession or distribution of Ephedra.

However, pseudoephedrine, the precursor of methamphetamine, is stringently controlled.

In Germany, it can only be obtained with a prescription from a pharmacy.

In Sweden there are no restrictions on the use of ephedra.

In the United Kingdom it is legal to buy ephedrine supplements online.

However, actually selling them within the UK is illegal.

In Australia, ephedra supplements are schedule 4 substances under the 2015 Poisons Standard.

As such, it is a prescription only medication.

In South Africa ephedrine cannot be sold as an over-the-counter weight loss supplement.

However, dosages of 8 mg per pill or less are available over-the-counter for the treatment of sinus, head colds and flu.

How Will Ephedrine Affect Me?

If you were to take it as a dietary supplement, Ephedrine would produce the following effects on you . . .

  • Your metabolic rate will increase, as evidenced by an increased perspiration rate
  • You will have more energy and you will fatigue less readily
  • You will lose your appetite
  • Your level of focus and concentration will improve
  • Your central nervous system will speed up, which will cause a slight increase in strength

At the same time, you are likely to experience the following side effects . . .

  • You will have interrupted sleep cycles
  • You may experience a post stimulant crash, coupled with anxiety
  • You will lose your appetite
  • You may experience a post stimulant crash, coupled with anxiety
  • You may have trouble maintaining an erection

All of these side effects are exacerbated if ephedrine is combined with caffeine.

What is the ECA Stack?

Before it was banned in the United States, it became very popular to take ephedrine as a triple stack along with caffeine and aspirin.

This was known as the ECA stack.

The combination of these stimulants enhanced the desirable effects of ephedrine.

Caffeine, the worlds most popular stimulant, has a lipolysis promoting effect on the body.

It can also help to offset fat storage.

This along with ephedra and caffeine makes for a good fat burning stack...

This along with ephedra and caffeine makes for a good fat burning stack...

Aspirin has the effect of prolonging the beneficial fat loss effects of the alkaloids in epinephrine, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.

The side effects of combining these three products are greater than simply taking ephedrine by itself.

The typical dosage for the ECA stack is to take the following four times per day . . .

  • Ephedrine 20mg
  • Caffeine 200mg
  • Aspirin 81mg

What About Ephedrine Alternatives?

The banning of Ephedrine in 2004 was a challenge to the supplement manufacturers who were making a mint off of its sale.

Many of them reacted by continuing to sell the name products, but with the ephedrine taken out. The names would change only slightly so that they could still benefit from the brand recognition.

As a result, people who were used to taking ‘Ripped Fuel’ before the ban could now take ‘Ripped Fuel Extreme.

The only problem was that the product was now fat less extreme because the ephedrine had been taken out, to be replaced with the latest ‘miracle’ herb.

Often, the company simply pumped more caffeine into the product.

Even though there have been many ingredients that have been touted as the new Ephedrine, none of them have the potent effect of the original product.

Ephedra for Performance Enhancement

In 1999, a study was undertaken to see whether a combination of caffeine and ephedra could improve performance in a 3.3km running test.

Study participants were drawn from the Canadian armed forces and were wearing weighted gear when running.

Recruits who took the caffeine-ephedrine stack completed the race an average of close to 60 seconds faster than the placebo group.

In a maximal test, the caffeine-ephedra group lasted almost 5 minutes longer before exhaustion kicked in.

Ephedrine and caffeine taken prior to resistance training sessions can also boost performance.

Ephedrine Safety

An analysis of 140 serious reports attributed to ephedrine was completed in 2003.

31% of those reports were considered to be highly likely to be caused by taking ephedra alkaloids.

31% of the studies were deemed to be possibly related to ephedra.

Adding caffeine to ephehdra was shown to increase the likelihood of adverse effects. They will raise both your heart rate and your systolic blood pressure. (8)

It is also clear that synthetic ephedrine carries more side effects than ephedra in its natural state.

Ephedra, or Ma Huang, differs in potency depending on where and how it is grown.

Many doctors believe that taking ephedrone without medical supervision can lead to serious side effects.

Summary

Ephedra is the scientific name of the herbal plant Ma Huang from which ephedrine is extracted.

Ephedrine includes a number of alkaloids which promote fat loss and enhance sports performance.

However, the sale of ephedrine as a dietary supplement was banned in the United States in 2004, due to a number of concerning side effects.

It is still legal in some countries.

There has not been another herbal supplement ingredient that has had similar stimulant effects on the body as ephedrine.

Key Facts

  • Ephedrine is an effective weight loss supplement
  • It will enable you to lose body fat while retaining muscle mass
  • The extent to which it works is less than the hype would suggest
  • Ephedrine enhances certain athletic activities, which has led to it being banned as a performance enhancing drug
  • There are a number of worrying side effects, including increased systolic pressure and heart rate
  • Ephedrine as a dietary supplement has been banned in a number of countries

What Are The Best Supplements With Ephedra?

Now you know ephedra isn't banned and it's widely available, you may interested in trying or finding new ones that you haven't tried yet.

When it comes to the best supplements, we never suggest one an individual as everyone has different needs, goals and experience.

Someone who's never had a stimulant-based supplement should never jump to something hardcore like Lipodrene.

So no matter what you're looking for, DMAA, protein, pre workouts, never settle a top 10 list.

We'll start with the best sellers, then to the strongest to the weakest.​

Best Selling Ephedra Pills And Pre Workouts

There are quite a few top sellers in the ephedra category, but it seems like the most effective formulas have multiple strong stimulants.

We'll start with the best seller and then list other ones that have different effects and dosages of ingredients.

Features:

  • 50mg Ephedra
  • Caffeine Anhydrous
  • Green Tea
  • Green Coffee Extract
  • Theobromine Anhydrous
  • Synephrine HCl
  • Coleus Forskohlii Extract
  • Rauwolscine
  • Ginger Root Extract (root)
  • 5-HTP
  • Yohimbine HCl

Stimamine Black is the strongest thermogenic in the new line of Stimamine thermogenic products.

Stimamine Black was formulated to aggressively stimulate thermogenesis, which is the body’s use of calories for heat production, which increases core body temperature.

This advanced formula also promotes strong appetite control and helps stop cravings.

Of course, with 50mg Ephedra and the addition of Caffeine, Synephrine, Theobromine and Yohimbine, you can expect intense energy and focus.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Extreme thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Dramatic energy
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood elevation
  • thumbs-up
    Effective hunger control

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blend - some ingredients are fully disclosed, but key ingredients, such as Caffeine, are not.
  • thumbs-down
    Expensive for a 90 count bottle and 1-2 capsules per day.

Features:

  • 575mg Proprietary Blend
  • 150mg Caffeine
  • ​25mg Ephedra Extract
  • White Willow Bark
  • Acacia Rigidula
  • Green Tea Extract
  • Theobromine
  • 1,3-Dimethylamylamine
  • Citrus Aurantium Extract
  • Chromium Picolinate
  • Yohimbe Extract

If you can think back to the days when every 7-11 (and every other convenience store) carried Yellow Jacket, you’ll be excited to try Yellow Scorpion, a Yellow Jacket-inspired, updated version of the legendary ECA fat loss stack with Ephedra, Caffeine and White Willow Bark.

Yellow Scorpion takes the idea farther and adds in 1,3 DMAA, Synephrine and Green tea for a far more powerful stimulant and fat loss effect.

If you want energy for the gym or your daily life and need a great thermogenic, this should do the trick.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Insane energy & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Effective fat burning
  • thumbs-up
    Good value with a 90 count bottle

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blend

Features:

  • 200mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 180mg Thermo-Extend Matrix
  • ​65mg Ephedra Extract
  • PEA
  • Black Tea P.E.
  • Green Tea P.E.
  • L-Phenylalanine
  • Tyrosine
  • Theobromine
  • Green Coffee Bean P.E.
  • Citrus Aurantium
  • Griffonia Seed
  • Yohimbine HCl
  • Black Pepper 99% Piperine

There’s a reason this is called Black Mamba Hyper Rush and that’s because this formula contains an explosive formula that includes 65 mg Ephedra and coupled with 200 mg Caffeine - talk about energy and thermogenesis!

Black Mamba also includes PEA so you can expect good mood elevation.

This looks to be an effective thermogenic that captures the energy and thermogenic effect of the legendary ECA Stack.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Extreme energy, alertness & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Excellent thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Uses a faster acting form of Ephedra than similar products
  • thumbs-up
    Average value - 90 count bottle, 1 (maybe 2) capsules per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blends again
  • thumbs-down
    May be to strong for some users

Features:

  • 811mg Black Spider 25 Proprietary Blend
  • 265mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 100mg White Willow Bark
  • 100mg Citrus Aurantium (30% Synephrine)
  • 75mg PEA
  • 50mg Guarana Extract (22% Caffeine)
  • 50mg Yerba Mate (2% Caffeine)
  • 31mg Yohimbe Extract (8% yohimbine)
  • ​25mg Ephedra Extract
  • 20mg Cayenne (40,000 H.U.)
  • 20mg Green Tea (95% polyphenols, 40% EGCG)
  • 20mg Black Tea (98% polyphenols)
  • 20mg Panax Ginseng
  • 20mg Ginger Root
  • 10mg Bladderwrack
  • 10mg Theobromine
  • 5mg Evodiamine

Black Spider by Cloma Pharma is also somewhat similar to the old but very effective ECA Stack and stands out from the rest with full disclosure labeling!

Every ingredient is clearly labeled with the exact dosing, so this is one product where you know exactly how much of every single ingredient you are getting.

Right off the bat there’s 25 mg of Ephedra with a solid 265 mg Caffeine and 100 mg White Willow - and the rest of the formula includes herbal sources of Caffeine as well as Synephrine, Theobromine, and thermogenics such as Cayenne and Yohimbine.

This formula also contains Evodiamine, a somewhat unique thermogenic that hasn’t shown up in any of the formulas reviewed so far.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Full disclosure labeling
  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Effective thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood support
  • thumbs-up
    Great value on some sites - 100 count bottle - 1-2 capsules per serving

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    May be too strong for some users
  • thumbs-down
    Not as well-rounded as many of the other formulas on this list

Features:

  • Caffeine Anhydrous
  • White Willow Bark Powder
  • Ephedra Powder
  • Paullinia Cupana Extract
  • Citrus Aurantium Extract
  • Cayenne Pepper
  • Yohimbe Bark Extract
  • Green Tea Extract
  • Panax Ginseng Root Extract
  • Bladderwrack Powder
  • Zingiber Officinale Root Powder
  • Yerba Mate Powder
  • L-Tyrosine
  • N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine
  • African Kola Nut Extract

Asia Black is another product that’s similar to the fabled ECA Stack with its 302mg blend of Caffeine, White Willow (the herba basis for aspirin) and Ephedra.

This formula also contains a 433 mg “Support Blend” that is packed with various herbal sources of Caffeine (Paullinia, Kola Nut, Yerba Mate) as well as Synephrine, Cayenne, Green Tea and Yohimbine for even more thermogenesis.

Overall this is an intense stimulant based thermogenic that may be too much energy for some users.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy, alertness & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Effective thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Increases metabolism
  • thumbs-up
    Great value - 100 count bottle, 1-2 capsules per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Two prop blends
  • thumbs-down
    Unknown dosage of caffeine and ephedra
  • thumbs-down
    May be to intense for some users

Features:

  • 300mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 25mg Ephedra Extract
  • Glucuronolactone
  • Phenlethylamine HCI
  • Synephrine HCL
  • Nettle root extract
  • Yohimbine HCI
  • Xanthinol Niacinate

With 25mg Ephedra and a huge dose of 300mg caffeine,Yellow Bullet is one of the most potent fat loss products on the market.

Among the ingredients in this formula is Synephrine, which is structurally similar to Ephedra, mood enhancers such as PEA, Xanthinol for increased blood flow and Yohimbine which acts as a thermogenic.

Yellow Bullet, which has undergone several formula changes over the years, is an effective thermogenic fat loss formula that will also increase energy, increase focus, improve mood, and control hunger.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Extreme energy & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Increases thermogenesis
  • thumbs-up
    Enhances mood
  • thumbs-up
    Good value - 90 count bottle, 1-2 capsules per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Yet another prop blend
  • thumbs-down
    Definitely for experienced users only

Features:

  • Ephedra Extract
  • 200mg Caffeine
  • ​Senegalia Berlandieri Extract (200mg PEA alkaloids)
  • 40mg Theophylline
  • 25mg Theobromine
  • Citrus Aurantium 60% Extract (20mg Synephrine alkaloids)
  • Theophylline Anhydrous
  • Cassia Nomame Extract
  • Naringen
  • 6,7 Dihydroxybergamottin
  • Evodiamine
  • 5-Methoxytryptamine HCl
  • Yohimbine HCI

Lipodrene Hardcore with Ephedra is similar to the original Lipodrene with the addition of a multi-release tablet that’s designed for fast and slow release of the ingredients, thereby by creating a longer lasting time release effect.

The time release aspect of this formula means no crash, all day energy and long lasting, effective mood enhancement.

Lipodrene Hardcore contains Acacia Rigidula extract, which is similar in structure to Ephedrine, that stimulates the beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which increases thermogenesis.

You can expect extended energy, focus, mood enhancement, hunger control and fat loss with this formula.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood enhancement
  • thumbs-up
    Stimulates thermogenesis
  • thumbs-up
    Controls hunger
  • thumbs-up
    Good value - 90 count bottle, 1-2 per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blend
  • thumbs-down
    Some ingredients may be a little underdosed

Features:

  • ​4g Beta Alanine
  • ​1.5g Agmatine
  • ​500mg LongJack
  • ​​360mg Choline Bitartrate
  • ​210mg Caffeine
  • ​150mg DMHA
  • ​50mg Ephedra
  • ​50mg Higenamine HCL
  • ​46mg Synephrine HCL
  • ​14mg Octopamine
  • ​10mg Noopept
  • ​And More…

​Arez Black is a beast of a pre workout that doesn’t only contain 50mg ephedra (per 2 scoops) but DMHA and a whole bunch of stimulants as well.

Unlike most concentrate pre workouts though, it has testosterone support, ergogenic aids and nootropics to keep you focused and aggressive.

If you want something aggressive, check out Arez Black.

And like Ultimate Orange, it has vitamins and everything to ensure your foundation is covered.

It is a bit pricey as it’s only 20 servings if you take 2 scoops (for 50mg ephedra) but you do get a whole spectrum of ingredients that’ll only benefit your training and motivation.

Features:

  • ​​125mg Acacia Rigidula (Thermo-Rx)
  • ​​100mg Caffeine
  • ​35mg DMAA
  • ​25mg Ephedra Extract
  • ​Theobromine
  • ​Green Tea Extract
  • ​Hoodia
  • ​Yohimbine HCl

​This is Hi-Tech's flagship fat burner.

It combines both DMAA, ephedra and a whole bunch of stims into one yellow tablet.

If you're considered to be stim-lover and plenty of experience with fat burners and pre workouts, then you'll enjoy Lipodrene.

And more...

Each bottle contains 100 tablets so there's no way you can finish all of it in one month, nor should you try.

Most hardcore fat burners and pre workouts contain a few stimulants, but this contains the hardest of the harsh.

DMAA and ephedra in one, along with other stimulants make this fat burner the best of all worlds of energy and focus.

If you're cutting, you're going to appreciate everything Lipodrene offers.

Appetite suppression, mood support, energy, everything is covered here.

And if you wanted to get truly hardcore, you could go for the Lipodrene Hardcore but that is the last kind of stuff you should go for as it is the strongest of the strong.​

Features:

  • ​Ephedra Extract
  • ​200mg Caffeine
  • ​White Willow Extract
  • ​Acacia Rigidula
  • ​Green Tea
  • ​Theobromine
  • ​Phenylethylamine HCL
  • ​25mg Synephrine

E​CA Xtreme is a popular fat burner but it is using a prop blend.

Lots of people are praising this to be a strong fat burner so it must have sufficient dosages.

While it’s a shame that we don’t know the dosages for the ingredients like ephedra, we do know it has 200mg caffeine so at least we know it’s nothing crazy!

It also has PEA, Acacia Rigidula, green tea and a few other stimulants that are usually found in the top thermogenics.

Features:

  • ​30mg Ephedra
  • ​AMP Citrate
  • Garcinia Cambogia Extract
  • ​Raspberry Ketones
  • ​Yohimbe Extract
  • ​White Willow Extract
  • ​Capsaicin
  • ​Citrus Aurantium
  • ​Green Tea Extract
  • ​Coleus Forskolin
  • ​And More…

​This is one of the few fat burners, or maybe the only one that we’ve found to have amp citrate combined with ephedra.

Blue Angel combines a load of thermogenic compounds to not only suppress your appetite but also to increase your mood so even if you’re on the most strict diet, you’ll have plenty of energy and motivation.

You’ll surely be sweating buckets with this unique fat burner.

Features:

  • ​​300mg ​Caffeine Anhydrous
  • ​150mg ​Acacia Rigidula (95%)
  • ​100mg ​Citrus Aurantium - Synephrine Extract 30%
  • ​​100mg ​Gallate
  • ​​100mg ​​Hydroxycitric Acid
  • ​​27mg Ephedra Extract
  • ​2​5mg ​Methylsynephrine HCL
  • ​2​5mg ​Methylphenylethylamine Tartrate
  • ​​45% Epigallocatechin ​Green Tea Extract
  • ​​Octopamine HCL
  • ​And More…

​Combining ephedra with synephrine and a few stimulants is a common thing to do in fat burner but Ultimate Burn is a bit more than that…

It uses Thyroid supporting ingredients along with compounds that’ll make you sweat all day long.

Ultimate Burn also makes for a great pre workout.

Features:

  • ​​200mg Senegalia Berlandieri Extract
  • ​25mg Ephedra
  • ​25mg Synephrine
  • Theobromine
  • ​Naringen
  • ​Green Tea Extract
  • ​And more...

​You're looking at a fat burner that contains not only ephedra, but DMAA and a moderate 150mg dose of caffeine (but still hardcore!).

The difference between Stimerex Hardcore and Lipodrene Hardcore, is that Stimerex has more PEA alkaloids and 50mg less caffeine.

The PEA content will help provide a mood uplift as it can increase dopamine production, and give you that quick rush of energy to blast through your workout.

You'll get more of a burning effect as Hi-Tech Pharma has proven in a study, that this PEA blend increases energy expenditure far more than ephedrine itself.

If you prefer PEAs over caffeine then you will like Stimerex ES over Lipodrene Hardcore.

Features:

  • ​300mg White Willow Extract
  • ​200mg Caffeine
  • ​150mg Acacia Rigidula
  • ​150mg Phenylethylamine
  • ​100mg Theobroma Cocoa
  • ​120mg Green Tea Extract
  • ​51mg Synephrine
  • ​30mg Naringen
  • ​27mg Ephedra
  • ​10mg Evodiamine
  • ​10mg Yohimbine (Yohimbine, Alpha-Yohimbine, 11-Hydroxy Yohimbine)
  • ​Kola Nut Extract
  • ​Guarana Extract
  • ​Yerba Mate

​Very few fat burners are complete like Green Stringer.

This is everything you could ask for in a fat burner, from multiple stimulants to appetite suppressants.

Increasing thermogenesis won't be a problem here as stimulants range from synephrine, evodiamine, naringen and even 3 forms of yohimbine.

Green Stringer will also increase mood, thanks to the multiple forms of PEA in here.

And of course this also has 27mg Ephedra.

The dosages above are for 2 capsules and you get 2 months worth of this stuff (60 servings!), which is why the price might seem higher than average.

For the length of ingredients you get with this, there's no doubt it is one of the best fat burners you can get.

Features:

  • ​QuadraCarb
  • ​Taurine
  • ​​13g Hydropro Whey
  • ​​100mg Caffeine
  • ​65mg 1,3 DMAA
  • ​25mg Ephedra
  • ​Tyrosine
  • ​A-Z Minerals And Vitamins
  • ​And More…

​Back in the 90’s, Ultimate Orange was the hardcore pre workout to take.

It is back today but it doesn’t contain the currently banned stimulant, ephedrine.

The formula is still quite similar as it uses 65mg DMAA and 25mg ephedra instead of ephedrine and everything else is still present.

Hi-Tech has done well with bringing back Ultimate Orange as one of the strongest pre workouts to take.

While it doesn’t contain a long list of stimulants, it has all your vitamins, minerals, and even protein and carbs.

So whether you’re looking for something with DMAA or just want to cover your foundation for pre-nutrition, Ultimate Orange has got your back.

Strongest Ephedra-Based Fat Burners

This section is not for you if you're just starting out with fat burners.

Here we list the strongest ephedra-based supplements.

We highly recommend skipping this section if you've never had ephedra before.

If you consider yourself a stimulant expert and you've tried Lipodrene or Stimerex-ES and that wasn't enough for you, then you're about to look at the next level stuff...

Features:

  • 910mg Guarana Seed Extract
  • 325mg Proprietary Blend
  • ​100mg L-Carnitine
  • ​20mg Ephedra Extract
  • ​200mcg Chromium
  • Acacia Rigidula Extract
  • PEA
  • Theobroma
  • Cocoa Extract
  • Quebracho Extract

Remember the original Ripped Fuel by Twinlab?

If so, you’ll like Ripped Power by American Generic Labs.

This formula captures the spirit and effects of Ripped Fuel right down to the bottle design.

Ripped Power contains 20 Ephedra and gets its Caffeine from a whopping 900 mg dose of Guarana, which typically contains 22% Caffeine, so we figure Ripped Power contains about 200mg Caffeine, however, we don’t know for sure since its not listed.

This formula also contains Carnitine to help utilize fat for energy, and Chromium which supports insulin function.

The proprietary blend contains PEA for mood enhancement, Acacia Rigidula for additional energy, and an unusual source of Yohimbine, Quebracho Extract.

Overall, this is a well dosed formula that may not be quite as strong as some of the others on this list, but that makes it a great place to start if you have used stimulants but are new to Ephedra-based fat burners.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Good energy and focus
  • thumbs-up
    Excellent thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood elevation
  • thumbs-up
    May be a good first choice in Ephedra fat burners
  • thumbs-up
    Good value when you consider that it’s a 120 count bottle and should last 60 days when used as directed

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blend
  • thumbs-down
    Ephedra content is slightly underdosed
  • thumbs-down
    Caffeine content is not listed on the label

Features:

  • 310mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 50mg Choline Chloride
  • 40mg Higenamine
  • 40mg Ginger Root Extract 4:1
  • 25 Ephedra Nevadensis
  • 25mg Red Tea Leaf Extract
  • 25mg Nicotinoyl GABA
  • 25mg PEA
  • 5mg Red Chinese Ginseng Root Extract
  • Yohimbine HCl and Alpha-Yohimbine blend

Red Wasp Fat Burner is a potent thermogenic fat burner that combines 25mg of Ephedra with a huge 310 mg dose of Caffeine.

With the addition of White Willow, this is another updated variation of the fabled ECA Stack, however, this version stands out with full disclosure labeling so you can see exactly what you are paying for.

Red Wasp takes the concept farther by adding Higenamine, which has similar properties to Ephedra, as well as PEA and Choline for mood enhancement.

Red Wasp also utilizes a special type of Sodium known as SSG (Sodium Starch Glycolate) that speeds the absorption of its ingredients for faster results.

Red Wasp will provide intense energy, intense focus, an elevated mood and extreme thermogenesis – when you take everything into account, we think this formula is a winner.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Extreme energy & focus
  • thumbs-up
    Excellent thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood enhancement
  • thumbs-up
    Full disclosure labeling

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    A little expensive - 75 count bottle, 1-2 capsule serving size.
  • thumbs-down
    Some ingredients may be a little under-dosed.

Features:

  • 375mg ECA Proprietary Blend
  • 250mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 100mg White Willow Bark Powder
  • 25mg Ephedra
  • Citrus Aurantium
  • Panax Ginseng Extract
  • Ginger Root
  • Hoodia Gordonii
  • Cayenne Fruit
  • Green Tea Extract
  • Coco Bean Extract
  • Yohimbine Bark Extract
  • Griffonia Seed Standardized Extract

Methyldrene 25 is one of the most popular Ephedra based fat burners currently available.

Like many of the thermogenics on this list, Methyldrene 25 is based on the ECA Stack that was at one time the most effective fat burner you could buy.

This updated version also includes Hoodia for appetite control, along with Synephrine, Cayenne,Theobromine and Yohimbine for even stronger thermogenic support.

Overall, this is a potent formula that stimulates extreme thermogenesis and dramatic energy.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Extreme focus & alertness
  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy
  • thumbs-up
    Extreme thermogenesis
  • thumbs-up
    Some appetite control
  • thumbs-up
    Good value - 100 count bottle - 1-2 capsules per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blend
  • thumbs-down
    Not a well balanced formula
  • thumbs-down
    May be to strong for some users

Features:

  • 260mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 100mg Panax Ginseng
  • 100mg Panax Ginseng
  • 60mg Citrus Aurantium
  • 25mg Cayenne Pepper Extract
  • 25mg Ephedra Powder
  • 25mg MCT Oil Powder
  • 10mg PEA
  • 5mg Bocopa Monnieri
  • 5mg Black Pepper Extract
  • 1.5mg Yohimbine HCL
  • 20mcg Methylsynephrine
  • 10mcg Bauhinia Purpurea

Methyldrene 25 Elite by Cloma Pharma is the next step in Ephedra-based thermogenic fat burners.

Methyldrene 25 Elite takes the already potent Methyldrene 25 formula and ramps it up with several ingredients unique to the Elite version.

Cloma Pharma has added Yohimbine HCl, Cayenne, MCT Oil, and Methylsynephrine.

The extra ingredients enhance thermogenesis, increase energy even further and help control appetite.

This is the advanced formula many hardcore users have been asking Cloma Pharma to make - and it’s a solid formula with a fully disclosed label - we think it looks like they have a winner.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Intense thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Extreme energy & alertness
  • thumbs-up
    Enhanced focus
  • thumbs-up
    Good appetite control
  • thumbs-up
    Full disclosure labeling
  • thumbs-up
    Good value - 100 count bottle - 1-2 capsules per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Some ingredients are underdosed

Features:

  • Caffeine Anhydrous
  • Glucuronolactone
  • PEA
  • Yohimbe Bark Extract
  • Synephrine HCL
  • Ephedra Extract
  • White Willow Bark
  • Nettle Root Extract
  • Xantinol Nicotinate

ECA Elite packs 25mg of Ephedra, along with Caffeine and White Willow Bark, making this similar to the legendary ECA Stack from several decades ago.

At the time, the ECA Stack was the most effective fat burner on the market.

Hard Rock has taken that legendary formula and updated it by adding PEA, Yohimbine, Synephrine.

Nettle and Xantinol, a combination that supports thermogenesis, energy, focus, mood enhancement,and hunger control.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy
  • thumbs-up
    Increased focus
  • thumbs-up
    Stimulates thermogenesis
  • thumbs-up
    100 count bottle

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blend
  • thumbs-down
    There’s no way to tell how much Caffeine (or anything else except Ephedra) is in this product
  • thumbs-down
    May be a little expensive for some

Features:

  • ​200mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 28mg Ephedra Viridis
  • Theobromine Anhydrous
  • PEA
  • 1,3 DMAA
  • Green Tea (98%, 50% EGCG)
  • Synephrine HCl
  • Rauwolscine

Octadrene by Greymark Pharmaceuticals is an Epehdra-based (28 mg per serving) energizer and fat burner that also includes DMAA and Caffeine for intense energy, extreme focus as well as thermogenesis.

This fast acting formula promotes extreme energy with no crash thanks to Theobromine, which helps to smooth and extend the stimulant effects. 

This formula also promotes intense focus and clarity with PEA and includes Yohimbine (Rauwolscine) which also promotes thermogenesis.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy
  • thumbs-up
    Extreme focus and alertness
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood enhancement
  • thumbs-up
    Increases thermogenesis
  • thumbs-up
    90 count bottle, 1-2 capsules per serving

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blends
  • thumbs-down
    A little expensive when compared to similar products

Features:

  • 250mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 100mg White Willow Bark
  • 100mg Synephrine (Citrus Aurantium)
  • 100mg Ginger
  • ​100mg Panax Ginseng
  • 50mg Ephedra Viridis
  • 25mg Cayenne
  • 25mg Hoodia
  • ​20mg Methylsynephrine
  • ​20mg PEA
  • ​15mg Green Tea
  • 10mg 5HTP
  • 10mg Theobromine
  • ​1.5mg Yohimbine

Methylzene Ephedra by Hard Rock Supplements is another version of the old but powerful ECA Stack thermogenic fat burner.

This formula contains a huge 50mg dose of ephedra extract, making it one of the higher dosed thermogenics on this list.

Add to that a solid 250mg dose of Caffeine and this formula is off to a great start.

With ingredients like PEA for mood elevation and two sources of Synephrine, this formula is serious about energy and thermogenesis.

Another plus with Methylzene Ephedra is the fully disclosed label which is nice to see.

Some of the ingredients may be a little under-dosed, such as Hoodia and Green Tea, but overall this formula packs a lot of heat – it will do what it intends, which is to stimulate thermogenesis and increase energy.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Excellent thermogenic effects
  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy & alertness
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood elevation
  • thumbs-up
    Fully disclosed label
  • thumbs-up
    A fair value with a 100 count bottle and 1-2 capsules per day

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Some ingredients are under-dosed

Features:

  • ​300mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 100mg Green Tea Extract (45% EGCG)
  • 100mg Hydroxycitric Acid
  • 100mg Citrus Aurantium
  • ​27mg Ephedra Extract
  • Quebracho Blanco Extract
  • Capsicum Chinese Extract
  • Hordenine HCL
  • N-Methyl-Tyramine HCL
  • Tyramine HCL
  • Octopamine HCL
  • Acacia Rigidula (95%)
  • Methylsynephrine HCL
  • Methylated PEA
  • And more...

Demon Seed is an Ephedra-based thermogenic fat burner made by Schwartz Labs that will increase your metabolism, burn fat, increase energy, control hunger and enhance thyroid function so your metabolism operates at peak efficiency.

Demon Seed also improves mood with an advanced, double methylated form of PEA.

With 27mg Ephedra and 300mg Caffeine just to start things off, plus solid dosages of Synephrine and Green Tea, not to mention the 725 mg Hell’s Incendiary Matrix, Demon Seed takes the ECA Stack concept and updates it to never before achieved levels.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Extreme energy
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood enhancement
  • thumbs-up
    Very potent thermogenic
  • thumbs-up
    Good hunger control

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Prop blends
  • thumbs-down
    Expensive - 90 count bottle - 2 capsule serving size
  • thumbs-down
    May be too strong for some users

Features:

  • 300mg Caffeine Anhydrous
  • 100mg Ephedra Leaves
  • Xanthinol Blend
  • Caffeine
  • Glucuronolactone
  • PEA
  • Picamilon
  • 4 1-Hydroxy 2 Methyl
  • Octanoic Acid
  • Theophylline
  • Xantinol Nicotinate
  • And more...

High Octane 100 Ephedra is hyped to be the strongest Ephedra-based thermogenic on the market.

With 100mg Ephedra and 300mg Caffeine, it definitely looks like no other formula can touch it.

Beyond the basic Ephedra/Caffeine complex, however, this formula uses 2 prop blends and only provides the total dose of both - so what we have, in effect, is a prop blend that’s part of a bigger prop blend.

There’s no way to know what the dosing of any individual ingredient in either blend is.

Add to that the fact that this product is using chemical names for seemingly simple ingredients only adds to the confusion.

So, is it effective?

This would be a good product for energy and thermogenesis based on it’s Ephedra/Caffeine content alone.

Additionally, it does look like it stimulates mood elevation, however, beyond that you’re paying for quite a few ingredients that there’s no way to tell how much of each you’re getting.

Pros

  • thumbs-up
    Intense energy
  • thumbs-up
    Good thermogenic effect
  • thumbs-up
    Good mood enhancement

Cons

  • thumbs-down
    Two prop blends with one total dosage - we have no idea how much of any one ingredient is in this product
  • thumbs-down
    Uses confusing chemical names for simple ingredients
  • thumbs-down
    Expensive for a 100 count bottle and 3 suggested capsules per day

Features:

  • ​150mg Ephedra
  • ​150mg Caffeine
  • ​140mg StimMax
  • ​95mg ThermoCore

​Hell Fire contains the most ephedra out of all the fat burners we've seen to date.

With 150mg ephedra, 150mg caffeine and 140mg StimMax blend and 95mg ThermoCore, you'll literally be burning for hours even if you've used this before.

At max dosage, you'll be getting 300mg of ephedra throughout the day but you'll want to work your way up but you should never exceed 2 pills in a 24 hour period.

If you really want to test out Thermo-Z and ephedra at it's maximum dosage, Hell Fire would be the perfect pick for you.​

Other Ephedra-Based Fat Burners

This section is for you if you're just starting out and haven't tried anything with ephedra.

Here you'll find moderately dosed ephedra-based fat burners that you can try.

Ripped Up by Ephedra Diet Pills

Features:

  • ​​455mg Guarana Seed Extract
  • ​200mcg Chromium
  • ​150mg Green Tea 98% (Leaves)
  • ​100mg Acacia Rigidula 98% (From Leaves)
  • ​50mg Theobromine
  • ​50mg L-Carnitine
  • ​​20mg Ephedra Extract (From Leaves)
  • ​10mg Yohimbe (Bark)

​We'll admit, the company sounds generic and probably doesn't even sound like a company to you at all.

But they are indeed legit and have got a beginner-friendly, and probably the weakest, ephedra-based fat burner here.

Ripped up contains 20mg ephedra, 100mg caffeine (from 455mg of guarana seed extract), 100mg acacia, 50mg of both theobromine and l-carnitine, yohimbe, and green tea.

If you're a stim-expert and have been using fat burners for years, then you may not feel much from this one but if you're just starting out in this category, then this is perfect.

And also it's quite cheap so you won't need to empty your wallet to get started with this one.

References

1. Ford MD, Delaney KA, Ling LJ, Erickson T, editors. Clinical Toxicology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001.ISBN 0-7216-5485-1Research Laboratories; 1996.ISBN 0-911910-12-3

2. United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Department of Health and Human Services; 21 CFR Part 119; “Final Rule Declaring Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids Adulterated Because They Present an Unreasonable Risk; Final Rule”; February 11, 2014; Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/04-2912.htm

3. Zang, Xinyu, et. al; “A-Type Proanthocyanidins from the Stems of Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activities”; Molecules; 18, 5172-5189; 2013; Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/18/5/5172/pdf (backed up at http://www.webcitation.org/6dVSwSeof)

4. Amakura, Y; “Characterization of Phenolic Constituents from Ephedra Herb Extract”; Molecules; 18, 5326-5334; 2013; Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/18/5/5326/pdf (backed up at http://www.webcitation.org/6dVSblPgs)

5. Friedrich, H and Wiedemeyer, H; “Quantitative Determination of the Tannin–Precursors and the Tannins in Ephedra helvetica”; Planta Medica; 30(7); 223-231; 1976; Retrieved from https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0028-1097722

6. Paul G. Shekelle, MD, PhD; Mary L. Hardy, MD; Sally C. Morton, PhD; Margaret Maglione, MPP; Walter A. Mojica, MD, MPH; Marika J. Suttorp, MS; Shannon L. Rhodes, MFA; Lara Jungvig, BA; James Gagné, MD "Efficacy and Safety of Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance: A Meta-analysis"JAMA. 2003;289:1537-1545

7. Abourashed, E; “Ephedra in perspective–a current review.”; Phytotherapy Research; Aug;17(7):703-12; 2003; Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12916063

8. Abourashed, E; “Ephedra in perspective–a current review.”; Phytotherapy Research; Aug;17(7):703-12; 2003; Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12916063

Nader Qudimat
Forged by the iron and cold steel, Nader takes his knowledge and hulk smashes it into this puny site.

Being an ex-hardgainer, he has no choice but to keep training until he has surpassed in every way imaginable.

You can follow Nader on Twitter (@DieselFitt).
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